The Republic of Adygea (/ɑːdɨˈɡeɪ.ə/; Russian: Респу́блика Адыге́я, tr. Respublika Adygeya; IPA: [ɐdɨˈɡʲejə]; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик, Adıge Respublik) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. Its area is 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi) with a population of 439,996 (2010 Census). Its capital is the city of Maykop.
Adygea lies in southeastern Europe in the northern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, with plains in the north and mountains in the south. Forests cover almost 40% of its territory.
Area: 7,600 km2 (2,900 sq mi)
Borders: Adygea is entirely surrounded by Krasnodar Krai
Highest point: Chugush Mountain 3,238 m (10,623 ft)
Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people. At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.
It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast (AO) in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.
On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The first President of the republic was Aslan Aliyevich Dzharimov, elected in January 1992. From 2002 to 2007, Hazret Sovmen was President. He, and most of the rest of the political elite in Adygea, are Adyghes. As a reaction to that, an organization calling itself the Union of Slavs was established, claiming that ethnic Russians are discriminated against in Adygea. They advocate the merger of Adygea with Krasnodar Krai, but have so far have had little support for that proposition from the Russian government.
Relations between Adygs and ethnic Russians in Adyghe are currently on good terms. Russians make up two-thirds the population within Adygea and the current Head, Aslan Tkhakushinov is an ethnic Adyghe and was elected largely on the support of Russian votes.